Posted: Tue May 26, 2009 3:46 pm Post subject: [asterisk-users] Maximum cable length for analog phone from
Excellent analysis of the real world. Start with this, and work out the issues, or go to VOIP.
From:firstname.lastname@example.org [mailto:email@example.com] On Behalf Of Wilton Helm
Sent: Tuesday, May 26, 2009 11:33 AM
To: 'Asterisk Users Mailing List - Non-Commercial Discussion'
Subject: Re: [asterisk-users] Maximum cable length for analog phone fromFXS port
There are a lot of factors that impact this. First, CAT 5, while usable is overkill. Cat 3 (otherwise known as I/O wire) works equally well for voice grade lines. That being said, for that long a run, a heavier gauge wire would be better. I believe telcos use 18 – 22 guage (Cat 5 and Cat 3 are both 26 awg). This has less resistive loss.
Most FXS or ATA devices use 24 volts or less for “battery”. That works fine for short loops, but limits the range. A central office POTS port normally uses 48 VDC which works well to several KM. If the customer is at the end of a long run in a rural area, they use a “long line” card which uses 75 volts. (In rural communities, they often place the line cards in a roadside “remote terminal” and use statistically multiplexed T1s to make it appear to the switch as a part of it.
That addresses the DC characteristics, which can be reduced to ohms law. A phone needs around 8 V @ .02 A. The wire resistance determine the drop (E = IR) and the source voltage determines whether there will be enough left. The A.C. characteristics are more complicated. The FXS must do a 2 wire to 4 wire conversion, which involves matching the impedance of the line. The FXS is generally designed for relatively short lines, so might not be able to match either the resistance or capacitance found in a long run. Heavier wire will minimize this. In addition to that, the transmit side of the 2 wire to 4 wire circuit must be able to drive the load it sees, and again it may not be designed with a long run in mind. Finally, COs line cards have the ability to adjust receive and transmit gain to compensate for sound level losses in long lines. While this isn’t routinely done on simple circuits, it is an option an FXS doesn’t generally have. In addition, the more gain that is inserted, the harder it is to balance to 2 wire to 4 wire circuit, and the more complex it has to be in order to support this.
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